There are two main veins of literature examining the distributional effects of carbon policy: the effects on households and the effects on production sectors (i.e., employment).
These literatures have generally arisen from two common arguments against carbon policies – that these polices disproportionately affect lower income households and that the overall effect on jobs and businesses will be negative.
However, existing research finds that well-designed carbon policies are consistent with growth, development, and poverty reduction, and both literatures provide guidance for policy design in this regard. This paper brings together the guidance from both literatures.
Riggs, Lynn. 2022. “Carbon policy design and distributional impacts: What does the research tell us?" Motu Working Paper 22-08. Motu Economic and Public Policy Research. Wellington, New Zealand.