This paper surveys the existing literature on diffusion of environmentally beneficial technology.
Overall, it confirms many of the lessons of the larger literature on technology diffusion:
diffusion often appears slow when viewed from the outside;
the flow of information is an important factor in the diffusion process;
networks and organisations can matter; behavioural factors such as values and cognitive biases also play a role.
With respect to policy instruments, there is some evidence that the flexibility of market-based instruments can have a beneficial impact on technology diffusion, but there are also numerous cases in which regulations have forced the adoption of new technologies.
There would be significant benefit to increased investment in studies that look at questions such as the role of information provision, networks and framing issues in households' and firms' adoption decisions.